Diagnosis and Management of Cardiovascular Disease in Advanced and End-Stage Renal Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 13% of the US population. Although a significant proportion of these patients progress to end‐stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) or renal transplantation, cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of mortality and accounts for 53% of all deaths with a known cause in patients on dialysis.
Critically, cardiovascular disease also remains the leading cause of death after renal transplantation. Appropriate management of cardiovascular disease in this very high‐risk population is of paramount importance
This review, provides a contemporary overview of the pre‐ and perioperative cardiovascular evaluation of patients with ESRD who are considered suitable candidates for renal transplantation. In addition, the evidence‐based guidelines on optimal management of cardiovascular disease in patients with advanced CKD with particular focus on coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), valvular disease, and PH is reviewd. The overall aim is to identify the subset of patients who may maximally benefit from renal transplantation. Finally, evidence‐based recommendations for diagnosis, management, and application in clinical practice is provided
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